Jamaican Creole either has the simple pronoun straight in forepart of a noun. ( for illustration 'my book' would be 'mi buk' ) . or adds the prefix fi- . ( as in 'fi-mi buk' besides intending 'my book' ) . Plural Marking Plural taging in Standard English is a odds and ends of different signifiers borrowed and assimilated from. Jamaica was colony of Great Britain until it gained its independence in 1962 (Lawton 1984: 255), it is a fact that emphasizes the direct long-term influence of the British language, and the former standard British English of the settlers evolved thanks to the continuous influence of Jamaican Creole in Jamaican English, which is the official language in Jamaica until today. Currently, two main.
Jamaican Standard English is the acrolect. It is basically a mutually intelligible dialect of English. Jamaican Patois on the other hand is a creole that is the basilect. It is not mutually intelligible, or at least not very mutually intelligible with the standard language Amid the present debate and controversy concerning the outcomes of our education system and the benefits accrued to teachers, is a concern that I have. This concern relates to the decreasing thrust to teach Standard Jamaican English (SJE) at our tertiary institutions and rather to focus on the use of Jamaican Creole (JC) in the classrooms The following chapters will deal with Standard Jamaican English and Jamaican Creole in particular and, finally, the examination of the post-creole continuum will make the consequences of the mutual influence of these two languages clear. David L. Lawton's text English in the Caribbean and the book Linguistic Variation in Jamaica: A Corpus-Based Study of Radio and Newspaper Usage by Andrea. On the contrary, Jamaican Standard English is the official language of Jamaica; nevertheless Standard Jamaican English is not spoken as widely as Jamaican Creole. In addition, Standard Jamaican English has written and a spoken form, while Jamaican Patois is mostly spoken Jamaican English, which includes Jamaican Standard English, is a variety of English native to Jamaica and is the official language of the country. A distinction exists between Jamaican English and Jamaican Patois (or Creole), though not entirely a sharp distinction so much as a gradual continuum between two extremes
Jamaican Patois Documentary: What makes a language? This documentary seeks to finally uncover the truths behind the complex creole and investigate its implic.. Jamaican Patois (/ ˈ p æ t w ɑː /), (known locally as Patois, Patwa, and Patwah and called Jamaican Creole by linguists) is an English-based creole language with West African influences, spoken primarily in Jamaica and among the Jamaican diaspora.A majority of non-English loan words in Patois come from the west African Akan language. It is spoken by the majority of Jamaicans as a native.
Patois has a sound system independent of English. Jamaican Creole does not use the 'th' sound but substitutes with two other sounds: the 't' sounds as in 'tik' for the English 'thick' and the 'd' sounds as in 'dem' for the English 'them'. Jamaican Creole does not pronounce the 'h' sound at the beginning of English words Jamaican Creole Vs Standard English Essay. Uncategorized. As we can see, this is not the situation in Jamaican Creole. Case is always demonstrated by position. Any pronoun before the verb is the subject, and after the verb it is either the direct or indirect object. Other features to note are the lack of gender and absence of nominative and accusative case forms. Also lacking in Jamaican.
Academic Paper from the year 2019 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, University of Rostock (Anglistik/Amerikanistik), course: British and American Transcultural Studies, language: English, abstract: This term paper gives an idea of linguistic diversity in Jamaica and thus discuss whether standard Jamaican English and creole, such as Jamaican Creole, are. from jamaican creole to standard english . Download or Read online From Jamaican Creole To Standard English full HQ books. Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle. We cannot guarantee that From Jamaican Creole To Standard English book is available. Click Get Book button to download or read books, you can choose FREE Trial service. Join over 650.000 happy Readers and READ as many books as you like. The Creole language versus Standard English. Apr 08, 2016 Letters. Dear Editor, On Thursday March 31, 2016, Guyanese Hubert Devonish, distinguished professor of Linguistics at UWI (Mona), was our guest in the Department of Language and Cultural Studies, Turkeyen Campus, UG. The event was an informative and inspiring Language Conversation From Jamaican Creole To Standard English by Velma Pollard. Download in PDF, EPUB, and Mobi Format for read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. From Jamaican Creole To Standard English books. Click Get Books for free access ebooks. From Jamaican Creole To Standard English . Author: Velma Pollard Publisher: University of West Indies Press ISBN: 9789766401481 Size: 24.72 MB Format. Download full From Jamaican Creole To Standard English Book or read online anytime anywhere, Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle. Click Get Books and find your favorite books in the online library. Create free account to access unlimited books, fast download and ads free! We cannot guarantee that From Jamaican Creole To Standard English book is in the library. READ as many books as you like.
Jamaican Patois (And English Schwa) I've recently become fascinated with Jamaican Patois, the creole language spoken on the island of the same name. The language derives from African languages and various dialects of the British Isles spoken in the 17th-Century. So it offers insight into both the origin of creole languages and the features of. The book indicates the ways in which Jamaican Creole differs from Standard Jamaican English. Author: Velma Pollard. Publisher: University of West Indies Press. ISBN: 9766401489. Category: Page: 69. View: 495. Read & Download Read & Download. For over a decade, this teachers' guidebook has been widely used in Jamaican schools and in metropolitan schools with Jamaican students. The book.
This sophomore grammar assignment required our class to compare the limitations of Standard Written English with a different dialect of English. Wha' gwaan? That's how Jamaicans say what's going on? in their native English dialect of Jamaican patois. From my observations, I have found that certain rules of Standard Written English (SWE) limit the freedo Jamaican Standard English and Jamaican Patois however, exist side by side in the island in a typical diglossic pattern. Creole is used by most people for everyday, informal situations - it's the language most Jamaicans use at home and are most familiar with; it's also the language of most local popular music From Jamaican Creole to Standard English: A Handbook for Teachers. From Jamaican Creole to Standard English. : Velma Pollard. University of the West Indies Press, 2003 - Education - 69 pages. 1 Review. This guide indicates the ways in which Jamaican Creole differs from Standard Jamaican English. It is organized into four sections: words that. Velma Pollard, From Jamaican Creole to Standard English: A Handbook for Teachers (1993, rpt. UWI Press, 2003). Mark Sebba (Contact Languages: Pidgins and Creoles. Palgrave Macmillan, 1997) and Jeff Siegel (The Emergence of Pidgin and Creole Languages. Oxford Up, 2008) are worth reading. They are fairly lucid and accessible for the lay reader who has no prior knowledge of linguistics. As a. The Jamaican language environment is complex and unique. The two languages, Jamaican Creole and Jamaican Standard English, have been perpetually at odds with the root of this being the language.
Jamaican creole vs english - abeng news magazine to translate complex scientific concepts into Jamaican Creole. that privilege standard strategy for using JC to teach Standard English. Case literary society official launch case CASE Literary Society Official Launch. England and Dr. Velma Pollard, celebrated Jamaican author of From Jamaican Creole to Jamaican English: An Handbook for . From. Jamaica make JC an ideal language through which to study dialect acquisition. JC has a long history of interaction with different varieties of English, and Jamaican immigration to the U.S. is common. Additionally, Standard Jamaican English (SJE) is the official language of Jamaic GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION * Rurality vs. urbanization References: Polard, Velma 1993, From Jamaican Creole to Standard English. A handbook for Teachers, Caribbean Research Centre, New York: Medgar Evers College. Roberts, Peter 2002. West Indians and their Languages, Cambridge University Press. Share this link with a friend: Copied! Company About Us Scholarships Sitemap Standardized Tests Education. From Jamaican Creole To Standard English. Read Online or Download From Jamaican Creole To Standard English ebook in PDF, Epub, Tuebl and Mobi. In order to read full From Jamaican Creole To Standard English ebook, you need to create a FREE account and get unlimited access, enjoy the book anytime and anywhere Although Jamaican is the native and first language of almost the entire population of Jamaica, it takes a number of different forms that fall along a continuum stretching from the basilect (furthest distance from Standard Jamaican English) to the acrolect (closest distance from Standard Jamaican English). Forms all along the middle of this continuum are common in Jamaica, while the extremes.
Characteristics of Creole Languages: Jamaican Creole & Standard English *Lexifier language: Language from which the majority of lexical (vocabulary) items are derived. Creoles vary from their Lexifier (European) languages in many ways. Some of those aspects are listed below: 1. Grammar Creoles make use of unmarked or bare nouns, verbs and pronouns. Inflection is usually indicated by use of a. ' A good command of the English language: phonological variation in the Jamaican acrolect ', Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 19. 1: 41 - 76. Irvine , Grace A. 2005 . 'Defining good English in Jamaica: language variation and language ideology in an agency of the Jamaican state', DPhil. thesis, University of the West Indies, Jamaica Jamaican English or Jamaican Standard English is a dialect of English encompassing in a unique way, parts and mergers of both American English and British English dialects. Typically it uses British English spellings but does not reject American English spellings. Although the distinction between the two is best described as a continuum rather than a solid line, it is not to be confused with. Jamaican Standard and Jamaican Patois exist together in a post-creole speech continuum. Creole is used by most people for everyday, informal situations - it's the language most Jamaicans use at home and are most familiar with; it's also the language of most local popular music. Standard, on the other hand, is the language of education
Creole French in the Caribbean (especially in Dominica, , Trinidad and Tobago and Haiti). A Jamaican Creole language primarily based on English and African languages but also has influences from Spanish, Portuguese and Hindi. Jargon or cant For over a decade, this helpful teacher's guidebook has been widely used in Jamaican schools and in metropolitan schools with Jamaican students. The book indicates the ways in which Jamaican Creole differs from Standard Jamaican English. For easy reference, the book is organized into four sections: 1. Words that look alike but mean different things in the two languages. 2. Words that are. . But while standard English is seldom used in informal conversations, it is clearly understood by the population. More frequently we use the Jamaican patois, our creole language which was conceived through a mix of Spanish and English. It is a significant part of our culture and is often used to socially classify the population. Our creole can be broken down. Jamaican patois ( patwah) is another language. Below is a list of 18 Jamaican Patois phrases translated to English. I Will Be Right Back - Mi Soon Come. To Eat - Nyam. Jamaica - Jamrock, Jamdown, Yard. Jamaican - Yardie, Yard man. Friend - Bredren (male), Sistren (female) Well Done - Big up, Respect. Excellent - Sell off, Tun up. Patwah or Jamaican Creole) is the language that is used by most Jamaicans in casual everyday conversations while Standard English is normally reserved for professional environments. However, Speaking with a Jamaican accent is merely speaking English while pronouncing the words similarly to how Jamaicans speak patois. Jamaican Patois is a language that borrowed words from many.
Jamaican Creole (JC) and Standard Jamaican English (SJE) are the two dominant languages in Jamaica but they do not function equally in certain contexts. In public formal domains, the use of JC is limited since most information from the state is disseminated to the public in English. When JC is used in such contexts traditionally reserved for English, linguistic gatekeepers such as teachers and. Grammar & Examples The tense/aspect system of Jamaican Creole is fundamentally unlike that of English. EX.: Me come yah fi drink milk, me no come yah fi count cow!. I came here to (whatever you came for) not get involved in politics or gossip. 6. Pronominal system The pronominal system of Standard English has a four-way distinction of.
To expand the concept, such a continuum ranges from pidgin and Jamaican Creole as basilects, i.e. the variants furthest from the standard language or prestige variety, which, given the political influence Britain had in the region, is British English/Received Pronunciation (BrE/RP) (Melchers and Shaw, 2003, Crystal, 2003: 40) to acrolects, that is, the variants closest to Standard English. Standard English: A Contrastive Study Trinidadian folk speech is the English creole that is spoken throughout the island of Trinidad. It is a version of English that is in many ways dis tinct from Standard English. Essentially, the speakers of this folk speech are those Trinidadians without a formal education and those who live in rural areas. Educated Trinidadians speak a Trinidadian. similarity between Jamaican Creole and Standard English, many of the important differences between the two languages can be obscured.,This fact and that of negative attitudes towards Creole are the principal problems encountered in teaching Creole. The lessons in this course on Jamaican Creole are based on the variety spoken by rural or . working-class people. The basic component of the course.
Holness, who is likely to become the new leader of the governing Jamaica Labour Party and Jamaica's ninth prime minister next month, also said that while he respects Jamaican creole, he is. Jamaican Creole, known also as Patwa, is spoken to some extent by the majority of Jamaicans and has a close linguistic relationship with Standard American English (SAE). Through oral and written interviews with six Jamaican immigrants living in the United States, this study examines the accent acquisition of SAE from Patwa. The study considers.
Jamaican English or Jamaican Standard English is a dialect of English encompassing in a very unique way, parts and mergers of both American English and British English dialects. Typically it uses British English spellings but does not reject American English spellings. Although the distinction between the two is best described as a continuum rather than a solid line, it is not to be confused. Jamaican English, which includes Jamaican Standard English, is a variety of English native to Jamaica. A distinction exists between Jamaican English and Jamaican Patois (or Creole), though not entirely a sharp distinction so much as a gradual continuum between two extremes. Jamaican English tends to follow British English spelling conventions Jamaica—home to beautiful beaches, Rastafarianism, Usain Bolt. That's the stuff everyone seems to know about Jamaica. What you may not know is that Jamaica is also home to an English-based creole language: Jamaican Patois, also called Jamaican Creole or Jamaican English.And, even if you've never traveled to this Caribbean island, you've still probably heard, and used, some Jamaican English. English has been present in Jamaica since 1655 when it was captured from the Spanish. The majority of the population nowadays is of African descent due to the slave trade. The second largest part of the population is multiracial. Although English is the official language of Jamaica, the majority of the population speak Jamaican Patois. This is a creole language (See the lesson on creole on.
Seminar paper from the year 2006 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,3, Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald, 14 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Throughout the last centuries the English language spread all over the world first and foremost due to the colonial politic of its motherland: Great Britain Creole languages show the variable nature of language. They provide evidence of universal sociolinguistic reality of language contact and economy. This work observes such nature of one of the most significant creole languages, Jamaican Creole, or Jamaican Patois (Patwa). The aim of this thesis is to provide an overview of lexical and grammatical features of Jamaican Creole in reggae music, to. The Jamaican Lexicon . Rhygin - horny, high sexual appetite. Junjo - moldy, diseased. Galang - going on, go ahead on. Real World Lexicon . Jamerican Edition:-Hood - In other parts of the World , this is a criminal, a hat-like extension or part of a car. In Jamaica however, it's a COMPLETELY different thing altogether ps - ask a Jamaican Woman for the answer, because, if yu ask . O crioulo de Limón (também chamado de crioulo inglês de Limón ou mekatelyu) é um dialeto do patoá jamaicano falado na província de Limón sobre a costa do Mar do Caribe da Costa Rica The language derives from African languages and various dialects of the British Isles spoken in the 17th-Century. I have documented many mispronounced words, however this entry concentrates on words you are probably saying correctly, as there are two ways to say them. Jamaican English, which includes Jamaican Standard English, is a variety of English native to Jamaica and is the official.
Jamaican English. view that Jamaican women are liberated and share the same level of respect as men, who used to be regarded as superior. No matter their races or social classes, Jamaican women rise from discriminated groups to be the heads of households and successful leaders in all kinds of professions. Louise Bennett herself was actually one of these rising women Linguistic Features of Jamaican Creole 5. Another common occurrence in a Jamaican accent is the use of compound words. Even parts of the West Country burr have picked up a Caribbean twang. This is more common among the younger generation. You may correct that. The official language of Jamaica is English, spoken in proper fashion with a Jamaican accent. A fe mi cyar. . What is YouTube Accent. Three differences between jamaican creole and standard jamaican english When linguists speak of 'mother tongue' and 'first language', they are not using 'mother' and 'first' in a qualitative sense to imply high social status or the sound appeal of a language to a person's ear. Instead, these phrases refer to the chronological sequence in which languages are learned by an individual. The. As a result this person's form of language may be Mesolect (mixture of Jamaican Standard English and Jamaican Creole) or Acrolect (Pure English). The Community Environment plays a role in contributing to the language system used by an individual. The environment we are in when speaking, will indefinitely have a major effect on our use of language. The more informal the environment, the more. Tuesday, March 12, 2019. Jamaican Creole vs Standard English Essa
. that privilege standard strategy for using JC to teach Standard English. Case literary society official launch case CASE Literary Society Official Launch. England and Dr. Velma Pollard, celebrated Jamaican author of From Jamaican Creole to Jamaican English: An Handbook for . From. Seminar paper from the year 2006 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,3, Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald, 14 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Throughout the last centuries the English language spread all over the world first and foremost due to the colonial politic of its motherland 2006 Codeswitching on the Web: English and Jamaican Creole in E-Mail Communication [Pragmatics and Beyond New Series 147]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Hinrichs, Lars & Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt. 2007 Recent changes in the function and frequency of Standard English genitive constructions: A multivariate analysis of tagged corpora. English Language and Linguistics 11: 437-474. Hoffmann, Thomas.
The French-vocabulary Creole (spoken in Martinique, Guadeloupe, St. Lucia and Dominica), the Spanish/Portuguese Creole (spoken in Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao) and the English-lexicon Creole (spoken in Jamaica, Antigua, St. Vincent and Guyana) share striking similarities in their grammar. This resemblance is probably rooted in the West African languages which the first generation of enslaved. Jamaican Patois. Our local dialect, Jamaican Patois, is a colorful and energetic sing-song language that constantly evolves. Some refer to our native tongue as broken English, heavily influenced by our African, Spanish, French, and English colonial heritage. We are an excitable people and as such our language is loud, animated, and can come. Jamaican Creole 645). In Standard English (SE) this manner of listing multiple verbs is unacceptable, but JC allows this particular grammatical usage. The serial verbs might be used in a JC sentence such as, He go run bring flowers. In SE this would be phrased, He.
Jamaican Patois, sometimes called Patois or Jamaican Creole, is a creole based on English that is the national language of Jamaica. It is a full-fledged creole language, with its own grammar, orthography, and literature. The grammar of Patois is very different from that of Jamaican Standard English, with no verb conjugations that correspond to the -ed or -t past tense forms in. On Jamaican Creole Two publications have appeared concerning Jamaican Creole and education. The first is The Role of Jamaican With regard to suggestions that standards would improve if children heard only standard English at home and school, the author says that this is completely impractical in the real Jamaica, where code-switching is the norm, and many parents do not know much standard. Patois/Patwa is the native spoken creole language in Jamaica. This is an english based creole langauge or some may even call it a slang. Why use a Jamacian translator? With this patois translator/patwa translator you will be able to learn Jamaican phrases by translating phrase such as how are you or hello and in due time you will be able to create your own jamaica pharses. By using this tool. Creole Language versus Standard English debate heats up. Apr 11, 2016 Letters. Dear Editor, I refer to the letter by Henry Singh U.G lecturer in Kaieteur News, February 8, wherein he alleges that many bright students end up in wasteland because of the notion that they are not bright. Permit me to ask, which area is considered the wasteland, and. Her novels for children aged 11 to 13 have been praised for their use of both Jamaican Creole and Standard English. WikiMatrix. Bryan is a leading authority on Jamaican Creole learners of English, and has worked as a consultant to the Ministry of Education on language policy. WikiMatrix . Jamaicans primarily speak an English-African Creole language known as Jamaican Patois, which has become.
When compared to British English, Creole was considered a debased deviation (DeCamp, 1971; Hall, 1966). Creole is associated with oral discourse, one reason for its growing use in literature. Caribbean writers have represented the Caribbean experience through the use of fictional Creole. The contemporary novel has thus been transformed by African-derived modes of narration which highlight the. Abstract This paper contributes to the debate on typological differences between Creoles and non-Creole languages. The study investigates onset consonant cluster production in English and Jamaican Creole by secondary students who are preparing for the Caribbean Secondary Examination Certificate (CSEC) examination. The production of onset consonant clusters starting with the voiceless alveolar.
use too much creole the informants downrate them with regard to competence. Despite this widely shared ideological distinction between Jamaican Creole and Standard English, quite some individuals hold strongly positive attitudes toward Jamaican Creole and wish for a stronger presence of Jamaican Creole in formal genres Descriptions of Jamaican English, Jamaican Creole, Trinidad & Tobagan Creole, Guyanese English, Bajan, and a form straddling key vowel features of Anglo-Bahamian and Afro-Bahamian Englishes are cross-referenced for commonalities across vowel qualities to propose the model below. Other varieties with less data available (such as the ECEDs, which no single feature unites) are more informally. . To speak or communicate between people. Example Sentences. Patois: Mi nuh taak tu mi fren in ah lang time. English: I haven't talked to my friend in a long time. Sep 02, 2021. Translate English phrases to Jamaican Patois with our free
English in Jamaica book. Read reviews from world's largest community for readers. Seminar paper from the year 2006 in the subject English Language and Li.. Jamaican Patois, known locally as Patois (Patwa or Patwah) and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English-based creole language with West African influences (a majority of loan words of Akan origin) spoken primarily in Jamaica and the Jamaican diaspora. The language developed in the 17th century, when slaves from West and Central Africa were exposed to, learned and nativized the. Nigerian Pidgin English, Sierra Leone Krio, and even the Jamaican Maroon language (slaves brought to the Americas who spoke West African Pidgins eventually settled in Jamaica) are some of the more influential of these West African pidgins. The Jamaican Maroon pidgin eventually evolved into what is known today as Jamaican Creole Cross-linguistic morphosyntactic influence in bilingual speakers of Jamaican Creole and Jamaican English Bilingualism in Jamaica is of considerable consequence, as most individuals are early bilinguals, speaking both a variety of Jamaican Creole (JC) from birth and having standardized English (sE) as the language of instruction in education ACROLECT = Jamaican Standard English I am eatin' MESOLECT I is eatin' I eatin' Me eatin' Me a eat. BASILECT = Broadest Creole Me a nyam. I won't talk about all the different stages that take place in all that, but now you know what it is. For real. With words. And you learn some stuff. You should be thanking me. You're welcome. Now, the famous triangle. Now you (more or less.
A case in point is Jamaica, where Jamaican Standard English (JSE), the language of the Anglicist colonial powers, is the language used in formal spheres—government, judicature and in international relations. Yet, Jamaican Creole (JC) is the native-born language of a wide cross section of the population and dominates the social spheres of day-to-day interactions. The existence of such a. Some poetry from different cultures, rather than using Standard English, uses the non-standard English and/or dialect forms of the particular cultural background from which it comes. Read the opening of The Song of the Banana Man by Evan Jones, a poem set in Jamaica: The Song of the Banana Man Touris, white man, wipin his face
bas·i·lect (băs′ə-lĕkt′) n. The variety of speech that is most remote from the prestige variety, especially in an area where a creole is spoken. For example, in Jamaica, Jamaican Creole is the basilect whereas Standard Jamaican English is the acrolect or prestige language. [basi- + (dia)lect.] American Heritage® Dictionary of the English. Jamaican English Dictionary creolica 31 juillet 2007 jamaican patwa creole english peter l patrick 1 creolica jc jamaican patwa creole english 31 juillet 2007 par peter l patrick university of essex introduction jamaican patwa jc is an english lexified creole a language of ethnic identification primarily spoken in jamaica but also by large. Jamaican Creole (Patois) Archive; Subscribe; Final Paper; Videos; Links; References ; This blog was created as a means to present my final project for EESL 617, Teaching English in a Global Context, F'13. -Niajah Moore *****NOTE***** I DO NOT CLAIM OWNERSHIP TO ANY OF THE PHOTOGRAPHS OR VIDEOS ON THIS BLOG UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED. 1st December 2013. Post. Lesson Plan Idea. Compare & Contrast w. English in Jamaica: The Coexistence of Standard Jamaican English and the English-based Jamaican Creole (English Edition) eBook : Bernstein, Antje: Amazon.de: Kindle-Sho what is the difference between jamaican and haitian. June 15, 2021.
Această pagină web este cofinanțată din Fondul Social European prin Programul Operațional Capacitate Administrativă 2014-2020 Nigerian Pidgin English (NPE), originated as a lingua franca for trade purposes amongst the Nigerians and the Portuguese merchants during the 17th century. It is broken English like Patois and Creole, spoken along the coast of West Africa and it has extended to the diaspora, due to Nigerian migrants. After the departure of the missionaries. Jamaican English, which includes Jamaican Standard English, is a variety of English native to Jamaica and is the official language of the country. A distinction exists between Jamaican English and Jamaican Patois (or Creole), though not entirely a sharp distinction so much as a gradual continuum between two extremes. [2