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Unique diversity of acanthothoracid placoderms (basal

  1. Unique diversity of acanthothoracid placoderms (basal jawed vertebrates) in the Early Devonian of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic: A new look at Radotina and Holopetalichthys PLoS One. 2017 Apr 5;12(4):e0174794. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174794. eCollection 2017. Authors.
  2. acanthothoracid material and/or the possibility to use new technologies such as synchrotron micro-CT scanning sheds more and more lights on the diversity and the anatomical complexity of this order. Precise phylogenetic relationships within the group and among placoderms are still debated
  3. The very best acanthothoracid specimens come from the Prague Basin in the Czech Republic, from rocks that are just over 400 million years old, and were collected at the turn of the last century
  4. Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Jump to navigation Jump to search. English [] Noun []. acanthothoracids. plural of acanthothoracid

The researchers say the acanthothoracid was one of the earliest jawed vertebrates with teeth (7) ____ to live. They were very excited at seeing how similar its teeth were (8) ____ ours. A co-author of the study, Professor Per Ahlberg, said: These findings change our whole understanding of the origin of teeth. He commented on the (9) ____ to the fish, saying: Their jawbones resemble those of. Finden Sie perfekte Stock-Fotos zum Thema Acanthothoracid sowie redaktionelle Newsbilder von Getty Images. Wählen Sie aus erstklassigen Inhalten zum Thema Acanthothoracid in höchster Qualität Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Jump to navigation Jump to search. English [] Noun []. acanthothoracid (plural acanthothoracids) . Any extinct placoderm of the order Acanthothorac The main reasons why the weejasperaspids are not considered to be closely related to other non-acanthothoracid placoderms, as opposed to the palaeacanthaspids, are that their skull anatomies and plate histologies are generalized, and do not bear any similarities to any specific non-acanthothoracid group, and that the patterns of ornamentation on their dermal plates are unique to this family.

Furthermore, whereas Radotina, Tlamaspis and Sudaspis can all be assigned to the group Acanthothoracii, on the basis of several features including possession of a projecting prenasal region of the endocranium, Holopetalichthys lacks such a region and is probably not an acanthothoracid. Skull roof patterns and other aspects of morphology vary. Welcome to the NicknameDB entry on acanthothoracid nicknames! Below you'll find name ideas for acanthothoracid with different categories depending on your needs. According to Wikipedia: Acanthothoraci (spine chests) is an extinct group of chimaera-like placoderms who were closely related to the rhenanid placoderms PDF | On Jan 1, 1988, John Long and others published Acanthothoracid remains from the Early Devonian of New South Wales, including a complete sclerotic capsule and pelvic girdle | Find, read and. acanthothoracid ASGs, and differences with respect to the dermal trunk scales associated with R. stellina. This identi-fication was criticized by Burrow et al. (2016), in part on the basis of the shape of the convex aboral surface of the R. stellina gnathal plate, compared to the strongly concave aboral surface of a Lower Devonian arthrodire gnathal plate (Young et al. 2001). In their.

Human teeth evolved 400 million years ago in a 'strange

acanthothoracids - Wiktionar

acanthothoracid closely related to, if not, R. stellina. Theskeletalplatewedescribed(figure1a-d)iscompatiblewiththearticulated gnathal plates, comprised from approximately concentrically arranged rows of branched tubercles [4, fig. 1(a-d)]. Differences in overall outline and size reflect growth; the isolated oral plate is equivalent to the inner core of the articulated plate, lacking. In other ways, however, acanthothoracid dentitions are fundamentally different from those of arthrodires. Like sharks, bony fish and land animals, acanthothoracids only added new teeth on the. The main reasons why the weejasperaspids are not considered to be closely related to other non-acanthothoracid placoderms, as opposed to the palaeacanthaspids, are that their skull anatomies and plate histologies are generalized, and do not bear any similarities to any specific non-acanthothoracid group, and that the patterns of ornamentation on their dermal plates are unique to this family. How do you spell acanthothoracid‎? References. The references include Cambridge Dictionary Online, Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales, Century Dictionary, Dictionary.com, Dictionary of the Scots Language, Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Duden, Oxford English Dictionary, Webster's Dictionary, WordNet and others. Details can be found in the individual articles.

Unique diversity of acanthothoracid placoderms (basal jawed vertebrates) in the Early Devonian of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic: A new look at Radotina and Holopetalichthys. Vaškaninová V; Ahlberg P; PLoS ONE (2017) 12(4) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174794. 5 Citations. Citations of this article. 9 Readers. Mendeley users who have this article in their library. Add to library View PDF. Find the perfect Acanthothoracid stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Select from premium Acanthothoracid of the highest quality The prehistoric organism is named acanthothoracid. It is a type of armored fish, which gets its name from its appearance: heavy armor wrapping the creature's head and neck. It is not usual that our teeth have their origins in ancient fish as we descended from the extinct marine species. The oldest fish that lived in the early period has no jaws. This population was covered with bony armor. The teeth, belonging to the extinct 'acanthothoracid' fish, were discovered near Prague in the Czech Republic almost 100 years ago. However, they are trapped in encasing rock and scientists have.

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  1. Die wichtigsten Gründe , warum die weejasperaspids nicht eng betrachtet zu anderen nicht-acanthothoracid Placodermi bezogen werden, im Gegensatz zu dem palaeacanthaspids sind , dass ihre Schädel Anatomien und Platte Histologien verallgemeinern, und tragen keine Ähnlichkeiten zu einer bestimmten Nicht-acanthothoracid Gruppe und dass die Ornamentmuster auf ihren Hautplatten für diese Familie.
  2. Artist's impression of a tropical reef in the Czech Republic, 409 million years ago, containing an acanthothoracid, one of the most primitive jawed vertebrates with teeth. It's depicted emerging from its hiding place in the empty shell of a giant mollusc to hunt for food 'These findings change our whole understanding of the origin of teeth,' said study co-author Professor Per Ahlberg.
  3. The interpretation of the acanthothoracid skull roof Acanthothoraci, pattern of the Saudi taxon from an arthrodiran model and the establishment Placodermi, Arabosteus variabilis of homologies is impossible to resolve unless based on prior assumptions (e.g., n. gen, n. sp., hypothesis of fragmentation or fusion for the paranuchal plate complex). The arthrodiran model, lateral line system of A.
  4. Acanthothoracid dentitions are attached to jaw-bones, indicating that bony fish and land animals retain the ancestral condition in this regard, whereas sharks are specialised in having teeth that are only attached to the skin - in contrast to the common perception that sharks are primitive living vertebrates. However, acanthothoracids did not shed their teeth. This suggests that the.
  5. ⓘ Murrindalaspis is an extinct genus of acanthothoracid placoderm found in the McLarty Member of the Murrindal Limestone, of the Early Devonian-aged Buchan Group. Search: Home Categories by continent Prehistoric fish by continent Prehistoric fish of Australia Placoderms of Australia Murrindalaspis . Academic disciplines Business Concepts Crime Culture Economy Education Energy Events Food.

PLoS ONE (2017-01-01) . Unique diversity of acanthothoracid placoderms (basal jawed vertebrates) in the Early Devonian of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic: A new look at Radotina and Holopetalichthys The acanthothoracid Hagiangella goujeti Janvier, 2005, has been described exclusively on the basis of isolated thoracic plates from the Lochkovian (Lower Devonian) Khao Loc Formation of Tung Vai, Ha Giang Province, northern Vietnam. It is characterized by a very high, triangular median crest on the median dorsal plate, and has been referred to the Acanthothoraci on the basis of the morphology. Acanthothoraci (spine chests) is an extinct group of chimaera-like placoderms who were closely related to the rhenanid placoderms. Superficially, the acanthoracids resembled scaly chimaeras, or (relatively) heavily armored ptyctodonts. They were distinguished from chimaeras by the presence of larg Like arthrodires, the acanthothoracid dentitions are attached to bones. This indicates that bony fish and land animals retain the ancestral condition in this regard, whereas sharks are specialized in having teeth that are only attached to the skin — in contrast to the common perception that sharks are primitive living vertebrates. Again, like arthrodires, the teeth of acanthothoracids were. Acanthothoracid dentitions are attached to jaw-bones, indicating that bony fish and land animals retain the ancestral condition in this regard, whereas sharks are specialized in having teeth that are only attached to the skin—in contrast to the common perception that sharks are primitive living vertebrates. However, acanthothoracids did not shed their teeth. This suggests that the different.

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The teeth, belonging to the extinct 'acanthothoracid' fish, were discovered near Prague in the Czech Republic almost 100 years ago. However, they are trapped in encasing rock and scientists have never been able to study them before. But the non-destructive X-rays revealed hidden details on their size and structure, showing a striking resemblance to human teeth. Humans and all 60,000 living. The meso-semidentine in acanthothoracid tubercles, rather than semidentine (sensu stricto), is most likely to be synapomorphic for the Placodermi. INTRODUCTION Placoderms are armoured fishes of uncertain relationship to the other major groups of Palaeozoic gnathostomes (Oste-ichthyes, Chondrichthyes, and Acanthodii). Present consensus identifies them as the sister group to all other. In other ways, however, acanthothoracid dentitions are fundamentally different from those of arthrodires. Like sharks, bony fish and land animals, acanthothoracids only added new teeth on the inside; the oldest teeth were located right at the jaw margin. In this respect, the acanthothoracid dentitions look remarkably modern. To our surprise, the teeth perfectly matched our expectations of a. Just out @ PLOS one Unique diversity of acanthothoracid placoderms (basal jawed vertebrates) in the Early Devonian of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic

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Vaškaninová V., Ahlberg P. E. - Unique diversity of acanthothoracid placoderms (basal jawed vertebrates) in the Early Devonian of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic: A new look at Radotina and Holopetalichthy The acanthothoracid placoderms are among the phylogenetically most basal and morphologically primitive gnathostomes, but their neurocranial anatomy is poorly understood. Here we present a near-complete three-dimensional skull of Romundina stellina, a small Early Devonian acanthothoracid from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, scanned with propagation phase contrast microtomography at a 7.46 μm.

Radotina species by avancna on DeviantArt

Palaeos Vertebrates Placodermi: Acanthothorac

  1. acanthothoracid jaw-bones were located right at the edge of the mouth, like those of bony fishes, whereas arthrodire jaw-bones lay further in. One acanthothoracid (Kosoraspis) shows a gradual.
  2. Unique diversity of acanthothoracid placoderms (basal jawed vertebrates) in the Early Devonian of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic: A new look at Radotina and Holopetalichthys. Animalia - animals » Vertebrata - vertebrates Publisher/journal/volume, pages etc..
  3. Fig. 3. Simplified strict consensus tree of gnathostomes of n = 18600 most - New cranial material of the acanthothoracid placoderm Palaeacanthaspis vasta from theLower Devonian of Podolia - phylogenetic and taxonomic significanc
  4. Unique diversity of acanthothoracid placoderms (basal jawed vertebrates) in the Early Devonian of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic: A new look at Radotina and Holopetalichthys Published in: PLOS ONE, April 2017 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174794: Pubmed ID: 28380002. Authors: Valéria Vaškaninová, Per E. Ahlberg Abstract: The taxonomy of Early Devonian placoderm material from the Lochkovian.
  5. Its precise taxonomy is moot but irrelevant here since the articulated specimen is an acanthothoracid closely related to, if not, R. stellina. Figure 1. Surface rendering and virtual thin-section of Romundina supragnathal (NRM-PZ P.15956, a-d) and Scyliorhinus canicula (BRSUG 29402) teeth (e-g). Romundina pulp cavities in transverse section (a) and vascular system in oral (b), dorsal.

Acanthothoracid - Names and nicknames for Acanthothoracid

  1. How to pronounce cardiothoracic. How to say cardiothoracic. Listen to the audio pronunciation in the Cambridge English Dictionary. Learn more
  2. Here, we show that 'supragnathal' toothplates from the acanthothoracid placoderm Romundina stellina comprise multi-cuspid teeth, each composed of an enameloid cap and core of dentine. These were added sequentially, approximately circumferentially, about a pioneer tooth. Teeth are bound to a bony plate that grew with the addition of marginal teeth
  3. Acanthothoracid dentitions are attached to jaw-bones, indicating that bony fish and land animals retain the ancestral condition in this regard, whereas sharks are specialised in having teeth that.

Acanthothoraci (spine chests) is an extinct group of chimaera-like placoderms who were closely related to the rhenanid placoderms. 36 relations Unique diversity of acanthothoracid placoderms (basal jawed vertebrates) in the Early Devonian of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic: A new look at Radotina and Holopetalichthys Vaškaninová, Valéria; Ahlberg, Per E. Abstract. Publication: PLoS ONE. Pub Date: April 2017 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174794 Bibcode: 2017PLoSO..1274794V.

(PDF) Acanthothoracid remains from the Early Devonian of

Articulated acanthothoracid dental plates are rare; x-ray computed tomography of a single, unique specimen, along with 3D segmentation of bone, oral denticles and vascular spaces, provides intrinsic developmental and topological information relevant to tooth origins. Recently, a disarticulated element was identified as a dental plate of the acanthothoracid Romundina stellina, with synchrotron. Unique diversity of acanthothoracid placoderms (basal jawed vertebrates) in the Early Devonian of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic: A new look at Radotina and Holopetalichthy Acanthothoracid dentitions are attached to jaw-bones, indicating that bony fish and land animals retain the ancestral condition in this regard, whereas sharks are specialized in having teeth that. The fossils of Acanthothoraci are found in Early and Middle Devonian strata, though, if the fossil Grazosteus is really an acanthothoracid, and not an arthrodire, their range is extended into the Late. 2009) Stensioella Placodermi Pseudopetalichthys Brindabellaspis Acanthothoraci Rhenanida Yunnanolepis Euantiarcha Petalichthyida Ptyctodontida.

Evolutionary origins of teeth in jawed vertebrates

Unique diversity of acanthothoracid placoderms (basal jawed vertebrates) in the Early Devonian of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic: A new look at Radotina and Holopetalichthys Vaskaninova, Valeria Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology Similar to the arthrodires, the acanthothoracid teeth are attached to their bones, indicating that bony fish and land animals inherited this trait while sharks did not. They are dissimilar, however, in the way that acanthothoracids added new teeth on the inside and the oldest teeth sat at the jaw margin, giving them a surprisingly modern take. To our surprise, the teeth perfectly matched our. In addition, acanthothoracid jawbones resemble those of bony fish and seem to be directly ancestral to our own. When continents collide, a mountain range forms along the collision zone in an area referred to as an orogenic belt. The evolution of orogenic belts depends on the physical properties of the different layers within the lithosphere. Since the early 1980s, the most popular model of.

Long J, Yong G.C. Acanthothoracid remains from the Early Devonian of New South Wales, including a complete sclerotic capsule and pelvic girdle. In: Jell P, editor. Devonian and carboniferous fish studies. Association of Australasian Palaeontologists; Sydney, Australia: 1988. pp. 65-80 The labyrinth of the acanthothoracid Romundina displays an interesting combination of inner ear and endolymphatic features 19, representing a possible intermediate between Brindabellaspis and arthrodire / rhenanid conditions. The general profile is not elongated, but is not as longitudinally compressed as in Brindabellaspis and the crown group. The angle between the anterior and posterior. 'Acanthothoracid' paraphyly suggests that some of their features represent the ancestral condition for gnathostomes. For example, the structure of the cranial cavity of Brindabellaspis has been compared to jawless vertebrates [5], as has the facial morphology of 'acanthothoracids', with their dorsal nasal capsules and an elongate trabecular region [10,20]. This facial morphology has. Romundina stellina is an extinct species of acanthothoracid placoderm from the early Devonian of Canada. The generic name honors Canadian geologist and paleontologist Dr. Romundur Ray Thorsteinsson of Calgary A new acanthothoracid placoderm with a very deep dorsal process is described from Tong Vai and the specific distinction between the antiarchs Minicrania lissa from Tong Vai and M. lirouyii from Yunnan is supported by additional characters. Petalichthyid placoderms are recorded from this locality for the first time, and the skull of a juvenile youngolepidid sarcopterygian is described.

New cranial material of the acanthothoracid placoderm

Notably, the Early Devonian ''acanthothoracid'' placoderm Brindabellaspis possesses a large postmarginal plate14 as in maxillate placoderms, and osteichthyans, such as Guiyu15 and Onychodus,16 also have equivalent dermal plates flanking the lateral-line-bearing bones and forming a considerable part of posterolateral margin of the skull roof (Figure S3). Trunk shield The trunk shield. One acanthothoracid (Kosoraspis) shows a gradual transition from these dentine elements to the neighbouring teeth, while another (Radotina) has teeth almost identical to skin dentine elements in shape. This suggests that the teeth had only recently evolved from dentine elements on the skin. These findings change our whole understanding of the origin of teeth, says co-author Per Ahlberg. Here, we show that 'supragnathal' toothplates from the acanthothoracid placoderm Romundina stellina comprise multi-cuspid teeth, each composed of an enameloid cap and core of dentine. These were added sequentially, approximately circumferentially, about a pioneer tooth. Teeth are bound to a bony plate that grew with the addition of marginal teeth. Homologous toothplates in arthrodire. A group of acanthothoracid placoderms seems to be the most basal group (Goujet, 2004). Acanthodians are divided into three orders (Gagnier, 1995). One acanthodian, Brochoadmones, is rather atypical in its sharply tapering snout and the only paired prepelvic finlets known in any fish (Hanke, 2006) The dentinous tissue forming the tubercles of Early Devonian acanthothoracid scales and dermal bone is similar to that of the dermal bone ornament of some osteostracans, and denticles of the vertebrate Skiichthys from the Ordovician Harding Sandstone. This similarity supports the proposition that the gnathostomes are the sister-group of the Osteostraci, with the Placodermi branching earliest.

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Uniquely, one acanthothoracid (Kosoraspis) shows a gradual shape transition from these dentine elements to the neighboring true teeth, while another (Radotina) has true teeth almost identical to its skin dentine elements in shape. This may be evidence that the true teeth had only recently evolved from dentine elements on the skin. These findings change our whole understanding of the origin of. The acanthothoracid placoderms are among the phylogenetically most basal and morphologically primitive gnathostomes, but their neurocranial anatomy is poorly understood. Here we present a near-complete three-dimensional skull of Romundina stellina, a small Early Devonian acanthothoracid from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, scanned with propagation phase contrast.

The Skull of Hagiangella Goujeti Janvier, 2005, a High

Evolutionary origins of teeth in jawed vertebrates: conflicting data from acanthothoracid dental plates ('Placodermi') Authors. Moya Meredith Smith; Brett Clark; Daniel Goujet; Zerina Johanson; Publication date 2017. Publisher Wiley. Cite. journal-article; Similar works. Full text. Crossref Provided a free PDF (195.62 KB) View original full text link. This paper was published in Crossref. Professor Moya Meredith Smith began her career and first developed her interest in vertebrate skeletal tissue evolution at the University of London beginning in 1961. She began her lectureship career in Dental Anatomy at King's College in 1968 and then following moves and promotions at the Royal Dental Hospital and UMDS she came back to King's.

[PDF] New cranial material of the acanthothoracid

New cranial material of the acanthothoracid placoderm Palaeacanthaspis vasta from the Lower Devonian of Podolia—phylogenetic and taxonomic significance. Vincent Dupret, Hubert Szaniawski, Marek Dec, and Piotr Szre Acanthothoracid placoderm (same specimen as in ) and surface renderings (gold) of Romundina stellina and Compagopiscis croucheri. Upper dental plates (anterior supragnathals, ASG) in occlusal view (a). Right ASG of R. stellina (NRM-PZ P.15956) based on SRXTM data (b-e). (b) Distal, (c) proximal, (d) occlusal and (e) dorsal views Unique diversity of acanthothoracid placoderms (basal jawed vertebrates) in the Early Devonian of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic: A new look at Radotina and Holopetalichthys. PLoS ONE 12: e0174794. Watson, DMS. 1937. The acanthodian fishes. Phil Trans R Soc London, Ser B 228: 49 - 146. Westneat, MW. 2006. Skull biomechanics and suction feeding in fishes. In: Shadwick, MW, Lauder, GV. Vị thủy tổ có hình dáng hết sức kinh dị, mang tên acanthothoracid, toàn thân như bọc thép. Nó đã xuất hiện trên Trái Đất từ 400 triệu năm về trước và đương nhiên đã tuyệt chủng từ lâu. Hóa thạch acanthothoracid hoàn hảo đã được khai quật tại Cộng hòa Séc gần 100 năm trước

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Evolutionary origins of teeth in jawed vertebrates: conflicting data from acanthothoracid dental plates ('Placodermi') By M Meredith Smith, B Clark, D Goujet and Z Johanson Get PDF (6 MB Uniquely, one acanthothoracid (Kosoraspis) shows a gradual shape transition from these dentine elements to the neighboring true teeth, while another (Radotina) has true teeth almost identical to. View This Abstract Online; The internal cranial anatomy of Romundina stellina Ørvig, 1975 (Vertebrata, Placodermi, Acanthothoraci) and the origin of jawed vertebrates-Anatomical atlas of a primitive gnathostome

How to pronounce acanthothoracid HowToPronounce

acanthothoracid placoderm platelets and hone fragments, and acanthodian spines. Chondrichthyans and osteichthyans are represented by rare teeth or tooth fragments, but no thelodont remains have been recovered. Text-fig. 4 shows the distribution and abundance of the vertebrate microremains from the two sections. Plates assigned to the/etalichthyid Wijdeaspis sp. (P l. l, figs. 14-15) exten the. Entelognathus (after Zhu et al., 2013); B. acanthothoracid Romundina (after Goujet and Young, 2004); C. arthrodire Dicksonosteus (after Goujet, 1984); D. antiarch Bothriolepis (after Young and Zhang, 1996). Fortunately, the huge morphological gap between placoderms and osteichthyans has been reduced by recent discoveries of placoderm-like features among early osteichthyans from the Siluro. ลองค้นหาคำในรูปแบบอื่น ๆ เพื่อให้ได้ผลลัพธ์มากขึ้นหรือน้อยลง: -มันหมายความว่าอย่างไร-, *มันหมายความว่าอย่างไร

Murrindalaspis is an extinct genus of acanthothoracid placo

TECHNICAL COMMENTS assigned to acanthothoracid placoderms Comment on Separate (6 ). In most of these instances, the den- ticles are not randomly distributed, but form regular rows, increasing in height Evolutionary Origins of Teeth along the row (Fig. 1, A and B). Certainly within the Arthrodira, dental plates or from Evidence in Fossil Jawed gnathals with ordered denticles are widely. IMAGE: The fossil skull of Radotina in front view (left), left side view (right, top) and right side view (right, bottom). view more Credit: Vít Lukáš/ National Museum, Prague The evolution of our teeth began among ancient armoured fishes more than 400 million years ago. In the scientific journal Science, an international team led by researchers [

Humans owe the origins of their teeth to extinct fish thatPalaeacanthaspis vasta v1 by avancna on DeviantArt

The acanthothoracid placoderms are among the most phylogenetically basal and morphologically primitive gnathostomes. However, their endocranial anatomy is not well understood; only one genus, Brindabellaspis, has been described in detail. Here we present a near-complete three-dimensional skull of Romundina stellina, a small Early Devonian acanthothoracid from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Meredith Smith M, Clark B, Goujet D, Johanson Z and Smith A (2017) Evolutionary origins of teeth in jawed vertebrates: conflicting data from acanthothoracid dental plates ('Placodermi'), Palaeontology, 10.1111/pala.12318, 60:6, (829-836), Online publication date: 1-Nov-2017 Evolutionary origins of teeth in jawed vertebrates: conflicting data from acanthothoracid dental plates ('Placodermi' Der Ursprung unserer Zähne reicht mehr als 400 Millionen Jahre zurück, bis zu der Zeit, als seltsame gepanzerte Fische zum ersten Mal Kiefer entwickelten und anfingen, lebende Beute zu fangen. Wir sind die Nachkommen dieser Fische, ebenso wie alle anderen 60.000 lebenden Arten von Wirbeltieren mit Kiefer - Haie, Knochenfische, Amphibie